1. the belief that virtue, the highest good, is based on knowledge, and that the wise live in harmony with the divine reason that governs nature.


synonyms: patience, forbearance, fortitude,
endurance, acceptance, tolerance
quote: “He who lives in harmony with himself lives in harmony with the universe.” –Marcus Aurelius
modern interpretation: persistence, submission  to natural order, discipline, social harmony, responsibility, spirituality, simple living, non-materialism, control desire/emotion, primacy of team performance over individual interest


  1. an ancient Greek school of philosophy founded at Athens by Zeno of Citium. The school taught the development of self-control and fortitude as a means of overcoming destructive emotions. The philosophy holds that becoming a clear and unbiased thinker allows one to understand the universal reason.



A primary aspect of Stoicism involves improving the individual’s ethical and moral well-being: “Virtue consists in a will that is in agreement with Nature.” This principle also applies to the realm of interpersonal relationships; to be free from anger, envy, and jealousy. Stoic moral theory is also based on the view that the world is a unity.

The name comes from the Stoa Poikile, or painted porch, an open market in Athens, where the original Stoics used to meet and discuss philosophy.